Friday, 11 December 2015


What part of the supply chain is distribution?
Distribution is the third part of the film supply chain.

What is distribution often referred to as?
Distribution is often referred to as 'the invisible art', a process known to those only in the industry.

What does 'vertical integration' mean when discussing distribution?
When discussing distribution, vertical integration means where the three stages (production, distribution and exhibition) are seen as one large process, under the control of the film company

Why isn't 'vertical integration' so common in the independent sector?
Vertical integration isn't so common in the independent sector because producers tend to not have long term economic links with distributers, who likewise have no formal connections with exhibiters. 

What three stages are involved in the independent sector?
The three stages involved in the independent sector are: licensing, marketing and logistics. 

What is licensing?
Licensing is the process by which a distributer requires the legal rights to exploit a film.

What are the two levels of licensing?
The two levels of licensing are international distribution and local distribution

What is the advantage of being a major US studio?
The advantages of being a major US studio are that they have their own distribution offices in all major territories. 

What three different types of rights can you acquire on a local level?
The three different types of rights that you can acquire at a local level are: Theatrical rights (showing the film in cinemas), Video rights (for video and dvd exploitation) and TV rights.

What are royalties?
Royalties are taken from the profit that the film makes. Usually a local distributer will conventionally share profits equally with the producer for the theatrical leg, pay back higher royalties for broadcast rights, and lower for video/DVD.

What is the most effective way to increase interest in a film?
The most effective way to increase interest in a film is to release a film in a theatrical way (in cinema) so that the film creates interest.

How long does it take for a film to reach 'free to air' TV?
It takes two years after the opening in cinemas to come out on 'free to air TV' 

What are the two key questions surrounding the marketing of a film?
The two key questions surrounding the marketing of a film are; when? and how?

What day are films typically released on?
Films are typically released on a Friday

What will a distributor look at before releasing a film on a Friday?
Before releasing a film on a Friday the distributer will look at a schedule of other film releases on that day.

What is a 'light' week in terms of distribution?
A 'light week' in terms of distribution means that there won't be a load of films on at the same time, ensuring screen space and adequate review column inches in the press allocated to any new release.  

What does it mean to 'position' a film distinctively?
To position a film distinctively means to avoid releasing the film around the same time when a film with similar traits is to be released.

Why has this become increasingly difficult in the UK?
This has become increasingly difficult in the UK due to the release schedule featuring over 10 new releases each week.

What are P&A?
P&A are Prints and Advertising.

How much can P&A cost?
P&A can range from £1,000 to over £1 million for a release of a film in the UK.

Typically how many prints will a 'specialised' film have?
A specialised film will typically have less then 10 prints.

How many will mainstream films have?

A mainstream film will have over 200 prints.

What is a key factor in developing the profile of a film?
A key factor for developing a profile for a film is press response.

How else can awareness of a film be raised?
Awareness of a film can also be raised by advertising in magazines/news papers and cinema posters.

Why is distribution in the UK seen as risky?
It is risky to release a film in the UK because the print cost is very high.

Why are companies looking towards viral marketing?

Companies are looking towards viral marketing because it is the easiest and cheapest way of marketing.

What are the benefits of a 'talent visit'?
The benefits of a talent visit is to get editorial coverage to support a release

In the pre digital film age what was a distributor responsible for?
In the pre digital film age a distributor responsible for is to arrange the transportation of the film to the cinema.

How much does a 35mm print typically cost?

The average cost of a 35mm print, including delivery to a cinema, is around £1,000.

How many reals is a typical feature print?

In a future print there are usually 5-6 reals

Why do 35mm prints get damaged?

35mm prints tend to get damaged because of the amount of times they are used in different projectors.

Where are prints stored?
Prints are usually stored  at the UK's central print warehouse in West London.

How long did a theatrical release used to last?
A theatrical release usually lasting up to 6 months.

When did digital distribution begin in the UK?
Digital distribution in the UK started towards the end of 2005.

Name two advantages of digital distribution

Digital distribution is more cost effective. It is also less stressful to send films as computer files to cinemas across the UK.

Which countries adopted digital distribution early and why?
China and Brazil were the first countries to adopt digital distribution

How many screens were digital in 2005 and how many are now (you'll need to google this)

2005 the UK Film Council Digital Screen Network launched in the UK by Arts Alliance Media creating a chain of 250 2K digital cinema systems

Why has digital distribution radically altered the operating model of distributors?
Digital distribution has radically altered the operating model of distributors because the comparatively low cost of film copies and additional logistical effectiveness of digital distribution provide the distributor with greater flexibility.

What has happened to the typical release period for a film?
Films are now available to pre order whie the film in still in cinemas

What is a loss leader (google it) and why are companies using the Cinema as a potential loss leader?
A loss leader is a strategy where a product is sold at a price below its market cost to simulate other sales of more profitable goods or services.

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